The Mediterranean Sea is a transcontinental sea that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean within the west to Asia within the east and separates the European continent from the African continent.
The Mediterranean Sea is geographically situated between Southern Europe and North Africa. The identify “Mediterranean Sea” comes from the Latin phrases Medi (Center) and Terra (Earth), which implies “sea in the midst of the earth.”
The realm of the Mediterranean Sea is about 1,553 thousand sq. kilometers (965,000 sq. miles), learn on to be taught extra concerning the Mediterranean.
Geography of the Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Sea occupies a deep despair between 30° and 46° north latitude and 5°, 50° and 36° longitude.
It extends within the west from the Strait of Gibraltar between Spain and Morocco to the east between the shores of the Gulf of Alexandria and the southwestern coast of Turkey.
This sea is 4,000 km (2,500 mi) lengthy and its width from north to south between Croatia and Libya is about 804 km (500 mi).
The western tip of the Mediterranean Sea is related to the Atlantic Ocean by the slim Strait of Gibraltar, which separates Spain within the north and Morocco within the south.
The Mediterranean Sea is related from the northeast to the Black Sea via the Strait of Marmara and the Bosporus, and from the southeast to the Crimson Sea via the Suez Canal.
The waters of the Mediterranean Sea have a relative transparency of fifty to 60 meters and are among the many saltiest sea waters on this planet.
In summer time, the water temperature ranges from 19 to 25 levels Celsius, whereas within the east it could vary from 3 to 27 levels Celsius.
In winter, the common water temperature decreases from north to south, and within the east and within the central a part of the ocean, the water temperature fluctuates between 8-17 levels Celsius.
Within the west, the temperature is extra steady and is maintained inside 11-15°C.
Physiological and geological options
The European Mediterranean is split into western and jap elements:
It’s divided into three primary areas:
- The Alboran Sea basin between the coasts of Morocco and Spain, east of Gibraltar.
- The Algiers Basin is situated east of the Alboran Basin, west of Sardinia and Corsica, and extends from the coast of Algeria to the coast of France.
- The Tyrrhenian basin is situated between Italy and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
It’s divided into two primary areas:
- The Ionian Basin is situated within the space often known as the Ionian Sea in southern Italy, Albania and Greece, the place the deepest level of the Mediterranean Sea is at a depth of 5,267 meters.
- The Greek basin, stretching from the Greek islands to the jap Mediterranean.
Not all southern European coasts face the Mediterranean, the place there’s a sea known as the Adriatic Sea, bordering Italy to the west and north, and to the east Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Albania.
mediterranean financial system
The Mediterranean area attracts hundreds of thousands of vacationers yearly. A few third of the world’s vacationers come to this area. Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey occupy a particular place within the discipline of tourism with massive annual incomes.
Though the summer time climate could be very dry, agriculture performs an essential function right here. Olives, oranges and grapes are grown within the Mediterranean basin. Farmers additionally develop different crops corresponding to wheat and barley. Few coastal residents make their residing from fishing.
mediterranean historical past
Numerous cultures had been fashioned in historic lands corresponding to Greece, Egypt and Rome, on the coasts of this sea. The inhabitants of this area not solely traded with others, but additionally conquered different lands to be able to broaden their nation. For a number of hundred years, the Mediterranean Sea was the one and primary waterway on this planet.
Within the early Center Ages, Muslims managed many of the Mediterranean, and centuries later Venice and Florence grew to become the facilities of world commerce.
When the Portuguese Vasco da Gama sailed to South Africa and reached Asia through the Indian Ocean, the trans-Mediterranean commerce path to Asia grew to become much less essential. The scenario modified when the Suez Canal opened in 1869 as a result of the Europeans wanted a brand new path to cross the Crimson Sea and attain their colonies.
Environmental points are among the many most essential for the way forward for the Mediterranean. Local weather change and international warming might result in an increase in water ranges of about 60 cm, during which case floods will happen within the Nile Delta and Venice.
Air pollution can also be on the rise because of vacationers dumping waste and sewage into the ocean. Many seashores and small islands depend upon tourism to maintain animals corresponding to sharks and jellyfish away from the seashores.
Seashore turtles are endangered as a result of vacationers are destroying their seashores. The Mediterranean Sea is the busiest waterway on this planet. Via this sea, tankers go from Southeast Asia and the Center East to Europe and North America. Oil spills have elevated its air pollution.
Some ships additionally carry heavy metals and different pollution, which is an actual hazard.
The development of dams alongside the rivers flowing into the Mediterranean prevented the entry of huge portions of soil and essential components that feed sea water and are essential for the diet of marine crops.
One other downside within the Mediterranean is overfishing. Greater than 60% of fish species are endangered. Just lately, the Mediterranean nations have been cooperating with one another to be able to higher shield the area.
Info concerning the Mediterranean
The typical depth within the European Mediterranean is 4900 ft.
The deepest level on report is at 5,267 meters (17,280 ft) within the Calypso Depths within the Ionian Sea.
Coastal nations bordering the Mediterranean Sea embody Turkey, Tunisia, Syria, Slovenia, Spain, Montenegro, Monaco, Malta, Libya, Lebanon, Italy, Israel, Greece, France, Egypt, Cyprus, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Algeria and Albania .
In historic instances, the Mediterranean Sea was an essential transport route. Right this moment it’s nonetheless an essential transport route.
Historic civilizations alongside the European Mediterranean included the Phoenicians and Greek city-states.
When Darius invaded Egypt, he constructed a canal to attach the Crimson Sea to the Mediterranean.
The Mediterranean has change into a significant route for migrants. It’s estimated that in 2015 over one million folks used the Mediterranean emigrate to Europe.
Main cities bordering the Mediterranean embody Algiers, Alexandria, Good, Marseille, Athens, Tel Aviv, Rome, Venice, Beirut, Tripoli, Tangier, Gaza, Tunis, Mersin and plenty of extra.
The most important islands within the Mediterranean are Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, Corsica, Crete, Mallorca, Lesbos, Rhodes and Chios.
The Mediterranean basin was fashioned on the finish of the Triassic and the start of the Jurassic on account of the convergence of the African and Eurasian plates.
Local weather change might result in an increase within the degree of the Mediterranean Sea, which might have a destructive affect on consuming water assets and result in the displacement of about half one million folks in Egypt alone.
Air pollution is a significant downside within the Mediterranean because of sewage, mercury, lead, phosphates and marine particles.
Round 220,000 service provider ships cross the Mediterranean yearly, a few of which carry harmful items that, if spilled, could cause critical environmental injury.
The European Surroundings Company experiences that 65% of fish shares within the European Mediterranean are protected against overfishing.
Because of the connection of the European Mediterranean to the Atlantic Ocean, tides within the Mediterranean are restricted.
The water within the Mediterranean Sea is considerably saltier than within the Atlantic Ocean as a result of slim connection and better evaporation.